Types of Homophobic Bullying
The most common types of homophobic bullying are:
Verbal bullying – may involve malicious name-calling; spreading rumours or gossiping that someone is gay; making threats; unwanted sexual comments or jokes; suggesting that someone or something is stupid and therefore “gay”.
Social bullying - may include many forms of exclusion, isolation, public humiliation or intimidation. Behaviour leading to social isolation was reported to be common throughout the age groups, but especially for younger children. This included spreading gossip and ignoring and can be especially difficult to identify.
Physical bullying - may include obscene gestures, hitting, punching, poking, kicking, choking, chasing, stalking, or threatening someone with physical harm; destroying or stealing belongings; unwanted sexual touching, teasing, or harassment.
Cyberbullying - using the Internet, instant messaging and cell phones to intimidate, put down, spread rumours, make fun of, threaten, or exclude someone because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity.
Types of Bullying and Abuse in Same-Sex Relationships
Nature of abuse in same-sex relationships is any behaviour or pattern of behaviour used to coerce, dominate or isolate the other partner. It is the use of any form of power that is imposed by one partner over the other to maintain control within the relationship. Abuse includes but is not limited to:
Physical Abuse - hitting; choking; slapping; burning; shoving; using a weapon; physically restraining; intentional interference with basic needs (e.g. food, medicine, sleep)
Isolation: Restricting Freedom - controlling contacts with friends and family, access to information and participation in groups or organizations; locking up in a room / restricting mobility; monitoring telephone calls
Psychological & Emotional Abuse - constantly criticizing, ridiculing (self, family, friends, past); trying to humiliate or degrade; lying; undermining self-esteem; misleading someone about the norms and values of the gay/lesbian communities in order to control or exploit them
Stalking / Harassing Behaviour - following; turning up at workplace or house; parking outside; repeated phone calls or mail to victim and/or family, friends, colleagues
Threats & Intimidation - threatening to harm partner, self or others (children, family, friends, pets); threatening to make reports to authorities that jeopardize child custody, immigration or legal status; threatening to disclose HIV status, threatening to reveal sexual orientation to family, friends, neighbours, and/or employers
Economic Abuse – controlling or stealing money; fostering dependency; making financial decisions without asking or telling partner
Sexual Abuse/Harassment - forcing sex or specific acts, pressuring into unwanted sexual behaviour, criticizing performance
Property Destruction - destroying mementos, breaking furniture or windows, throwing or smashing objects, trashing clothes or other possessions